From the first reports from Wuhan, Iran and later Italy we knew that losing your smell (anosemia) is an important symptom of the disease. After months of reports with final and stricter clinical results, we now believe that we have a pattern for how the virus can reduce the smell.
One of the most common causes of odor loss is a viral infection such as a cold, bones, or other respiratory infections. Corona viruses that do not cause fatal diseases, such as Covid-19, stork and measles, are a common cause of colds and cause odor loss.
In most cases, the sense of smell returns when the symptoms are clear, since the loss of smell is simply due to a stuffy nose, which prevents the scent molecules from reaching the vulva receptors in the nose. In some cases, acne can last for months and years.
However, the odor loss pattern is different for the novel corona virus (Stork Covey-2). Many people with COVID-19 reported a sudden loss of smell and then returned to normal and normal smell in a week or two.
Interestingly, many of these people said their noses were clean, so the lack of smell was not due to a stuffy nose. For others, the smell was long-lasting and even after a few weeks they had no sense of smell. Any theory of anosmia in COVID-19 must consider these two patterns.
This good return of the normal sense of smell indicates an unpleasant smell, in which the scent molecules cannot reach the receptors in the nose (the same type of damage is caused by sticking clothes on the nose).
Now that we have CT scans of human noses and bones due to COVID-19 odor loss, we can see that the smelling part of the nose, the vulva defects, is blocked with swollen soft tissue and mucus. Is. Crack Syndrome The rest of the nose and paranasal sinuses look normal and patients have no difficulty breathing through the nose.
Location of the wolverine pear. (Medical stock / closure stock)
Location of the wolverine pear. (Medical stocks / iStocks / Getty Images Plus)
We know that the way SARS-CoV-2 affects the body is related to ACE2 receptors on the cell surface that connect the upper respiratory tract. Then the virus helps the TMPRS2 protein to attack the cell.
The virus can regenerate in the cell and trigger the inflammatory response of the immune system. This is the beginning of the disaster and destruction that causes the virus to enter the body once.
At first we thought the virus was infecting and destroying voluntary neurons. These are the cells that transmit signals from the odor molecules in your nose to the part of the brain where these signals are interpreted as “smells”.
Microscopic image of the Wolverine Neuron (Pink) with a diffuse odor (Celia). (xxx)
Abnormal neurons with diffuse olfactory receptors [pink]. (Steve Ghamisner / Getty Images)
However, international collaboration has recently shown that the ACE2 protein virus must penetrate cells that are not found on voluntary neurons. However, they have been found on cells called “suscentric cells” that support voluntary neurons.
We expect that these helper cells will likely be damaged by the virus and that the immune response will cause inflammation in the region, but the vascular neurons will remain intact. When the immune system has dealt with the virus, the swelling subsides and the odor molecules pave the way for their unhealthy receptors and the sense of smell is normalized again.
Why does the smell not return in some cases? It’s more theoretical, but it follows what we know about inflammation in other systems. The body’s response to harmful substances is the result of the release of a chemical that destroys the tissue.
When the inflammation is severe, other nearby cells begin to be damaged or destroyed by this “splash damage”. We believe that in the second phase, in which the voluntary neurons are damaged.
Odor extraction is slow because voluntary neurons need time to regenerate from the supply of stem cells in the nasal mucosa.
Early recovery is often associated with a sense of smell known as parokemia, in which things no longer smell like they used to. For example, with many parasites, the smell of coffee is often described as a reminder of combustion, chemicals, dirt and waste water.
Physiotherapy for the nose
Due to its neglect by scientific research, olfactory was called the Cinderella of the Senses. But these